Range of Motion: Shoulder Internal Rotation 90 degs

range of motion Jul 03, 2023

To test Shoulder Internal Rotation 90 degs range of motion with an inclinometer, the following steps can be followed:

  1. Have the client start in a seated or standing position. 
  2. Then, have the client abduct their shoulder to 90 degrees, and flex their elbow to 90 degrees also.
  3. Next, align the Measurz inclinometer with the midway point of the forearm and instruct the client to externally rotate their forearm forward and downward as far as they can go. Make sure the client keeps their shoulder and elbow in the same position as they perform this test.
  4. Once maximal range of motion is achieved, press the pause, and then the save button to view the results. NB: Should be aiming for at least 90 degrees worth of shoulder internal rotation from this 90 degree starting point.

Note that 90 degrees of internal rotation is considered a standard reference point, but the normal range of motion can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, and activity level.



  1. Hegedus EJ, Goode A, Campbell S, et al. Physical examination tests of the shoulder: a systematic review with meta-analysis of individual tests. Br J Sports Med. 2008;42(2):80-92. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2007.038406
  2. Michener LA, Boardman ND, Pidcoe PE, Frith AM. Scapular muscle tests in subjects with shoulder pain and functional loss: reliability and construct validity. Phys Ther. 2005;85(11):1128-1138.
  3. Kromer TO, Tautenhahn UG, de Bie RA, Staal JB, Bastiaenen CH. Effects of physiotherapy in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome: a systematic review of the literature. J Rehabil Med. 2009;41(11):870-880. doi:10.2340/16501977-0454

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