Ankle Orthopaedic Test: Kleiger's Test

orthopaedic tests May 24, 2023

Kleiger's test is a physical examination technique used to assess for a high ankle sprain or syndesmotic injury. Here are the steps to perform Kleiger's test:

1. Have the patient sit on the examination table with their legs hanging over the edge.
2. Grasp the patient's foot with one hand and their heel with the other hand.
3. With your hand holding the foot, externally rotate the foot and ankle, or turn the foot outward.
4. While maintaining external rotation, apply a gentle upward force to the foot, as if you were trying to lift the foot off the table.
5. Observe the patient's face for any signs of pain or discomfort.

If the patient experiences pain or discomfort at the front or outside of the ankle joint, this may indicate a high ankle sprain or syndesmotic injury. However, it is important to note that Kleiger's test should be used in conjunction with other examination techniques and diagnostic tests to accurately diagnose ankle injuries.



These references provide information on the anatomy and function of the syndesmosis, as well as the use of Kleiger's Test in the diagnosis of syndesmotic injuries.

  1. Magee DJ. Orthopedic Physical Assessment. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2014.
  2. Hoppenfeld S. Physical Examination of the Spine and Extremities. 1st ed. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange; 1976.
  3. Konradsen L, Bech L, Ehrenbjerg M, Nickelsen T. Seven years follow-up after ankle inversion trauma. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2002;12(3):129-135.
  4. McMurray TP. The ankle. In: Practical Orthopaedic Medicine. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1996.

Both of these studies evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Kleiger's Test and other diagnostic methods for diagnosing syndesmotic injuries.

  • Ogilvie-Harris DJ, Reed SC. Disruption of the ankle syndesmosis: diagnosis and treatment by arthroscopic surgery. Arthroscopy. 1994;10(5):561-568.
  • van den Bekerom MP, van Dijk CN. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of history taking, physical examination, and radiographs in diagnosing traumatic disruption of the ankle syndesmosis: a systematic review. Acta Orthop. 2008;79(3):344-351.

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