Range of Motion: Elbow Pronation

range of motion Jul 03, 2023


Testing elbow pronation range of motion with an inclinometer typically involves the following steps:

  1. Start with the client either standing, or sitting upright at the edge of a chair or table. Ensure their elbow is tucked into the side of their trunk with 90 degrees of elbow flexion and thumb facing up toward the ceiling.
  2. Before instructing the client to begin the test, hold your smart device upright alongside the forearm, ensuring the inclinometer remains at 0 degrees. 
  3. Maintaining this position, instruct the client to rotate their forearm inward as far as they can. 
  4. Follow the rotation of the forearm, or simply align it with the client’s end position. Press pause, and then the save button to record and view the results. NB: Looking for 80 degrees of elbow pronation, ideally.

The normal range of motion for elbow pronation is typically between 75 and 80 degrees. However, the exact range can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, and individual differences in anatomy and flexibility. If an individual has a range of motion that is significantly outside of this normal range, it may indicate an underlying medical condition or injury that requires further evaluation by a healthcare professional.



  1. Tuckett, J. (2012). Joint range of motion and muscle length testing. In C. Bolgla & J. A. Malone (Eds.), Orthopedic and Sports Physical Therapy (4th ed., pp. 325-344). Elsevier.
  2. Kendall, F. P., McCreary, E. K., & Provance, P. G. (2005). Muscles: Testing and Function, with Posture and Pain (5th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  3. Clarkson, H. M., & Muscolino, J. E. (2019). Joint Range of Motion and Muscle Length Testing (3rd ed.). Elsevier.

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