The calves play a significant role in daily life, as well as in many sporting endeavours. As a result, injury to the gastrocnemius, soleus, Achilles tendon, and triceps surae muscle-tendon unit is common, with the calf raise test (CRT) often employed clinically for diagnosis and monitoring purposes (Hebert-Losier, Schneiders, Newsham-West, & Sullivan, 2009).
This can be accomplished either by bodyweight or using a calf raise machine. Importantly, differentiation between the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles should be considered for more accurate identification of contributing muscles, with the gastrocnemius playing a dominant role in full knee extension due to its biarticular nature, whilst in contrast, the soleus is favoured during varying degrees of knee flexion (Hebert-Losier, Newsham-West, Schneiders, & Sullivan, 2009).
From the research we find that:
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